Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Strong evidence supports that excessive activation of B cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Fc gamma receptor b (FcγRIIb) is the B cell inhibitory receptor and inhibits BCR (B cell receptor) signalling in part by selectively dephosphorylating CD19 which is considered a co-receptor for BCR and is essential for B cell activation. Our previous study demonstrated that a FcγRIIb I232T polymorphism presented a strong genetic link to RA and may lead to the excessive activation of B cells. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies and drugs that can effectively inhibit the excessive activation of B cells by regulating the FcγRIIb are necessary for the treatment of RA. Therefore, we used Burkitt’s lymphoma ST486 human B cells (lacking endogenous FcγRIIb) transfected with the 232Thr loss-of-function mutant to construct a FcγRIIb mutant cell line (ST486), and we demonstrated that YSTB treatment not only reduced proliferation and promoted apoptosis in ST486 cells but also did so in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the intracellular Ca flux of ST486 cells was decreased after treatment with YSTB, inhibiting the excessive activation of ST486 cells, and these effects correlated with the CD19/FcγRIIb-Lyn-SHP-1 pathways. Our data showed that YSTB treatment inhibited the expression of phosphorylated CD19 and upregulated the protein expression of FcγRIIb, Lyn, and SHP-1. Additionally, the CIA model was established to explore the anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects of YSTB on bone destruction, and we found that YSTB decreased the paw oedema and arthritis index (AI) in CIA rats. It is worth mentioning that YSTB clearly decreased the AI earlier than methotrexate (MTX) (day 10 vs 16). Moreover, synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration and cartilage surface erosion in CIA rats were noticeably reduced after treatment with YSTB as evidenced by histopathological examination. Finally, we found that YSTB treatment suppressed bone erosion and joint space score (JNS) in CIA rats as evidenced by radiographic assessment. In summary, these data suggest that YSTB has great therapeutic potential for RA treatment.
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