The study aimed to assess and compare the clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of anterolateral and posterolateral decompression and spinal stabilization in the thoracolumbar tuberculous spine. The researchers evaluated 30 patients with thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis surgery from September 2014 to 2018. Fifteen patients underwent anterolateral decompression and spinal stabilization from September 2014 to September 2016. These patients were studied retrospectively. They assessed fifteen other patients who had undergone posterolateral decompression by costotransversectomy and spinal stabilization from September 2016 to September 2017 were studied prospectively. Neurological recovery, correction of kyphotic deformity, pain, and ESR, and duration of stay. Neurological outcome was assessed using Frankel grading, and the pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale.

The average follow-up period in both groups is 12 months. As a result, there was a statistically significant difference in the kyphotic angle correction between anterolateral and posterolateral groups at the end of 12 months. The researchers didn’t find any statistically significant difference between the two groups for ESR, a visual analog scale for pain, and neurological recovery (Frankel’s grading) at the end of 12 months. Both anterolateral and posterolateral approaches are good thoracic and thoracolumbar tuberculous spine. The posterolateral system allows a significant correction of kyphotic angle, better pain improvement, and lesser duration of stay.