The recent approval of two serogroup B recombinant protein meningococcal vaccines in Brazil underscores the significance of better understanding the true burden of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) disease in order to develop evidence-based immunisation policy. From 2001 to 2015, the researchers conducted an observational, descriptive study to examine the incidence and case fatality rates (CFR) of MenB illness in Brazil by age group and geography. In the absence of any MenB disease vaccine use, a significant 90 percent decrease in overall incidence rates of MenB disease was detected, with decreases recorded in all age categories during the study period.

The highest incidence rates were continuously reported in newborns and children aged 1–4 years, whereas individuals aged 60 years had the highest CFR. Despite recent improvements, the quality of diagnosis is highly varied among regions, displaying significant shortcomings that continue to preclude the feasibility of a robust and reliable characterization of the meningococcal disease burden. Based on the findings of this study and the improbable indirect effect linked with the use of the new recombinant serogroup B protein vaccines, babies should be prioritised when contemplating the adoption of routine MenB immunisation programmes.