In October 2014, the 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) was added to Japan’s normal vaccination schedule. It was suggested for persons over the age of 65 and individuals 60–64 with cardiac, renal, or pulmonary failure equivalent to Level 1 physical impairment. Several studies have found that persons over the age of 50 who have chronic medical conditions (CMC) are at an increased risk of pneumococcal infection. The researchers provide the findings of a survey research into PPSV23 vaccination rates among Japanese patients aged 50 and above with CMC in this study. PPSV23 coverage rates among chronic patients aged 50–59, 60–64, and 65+ years were 1.3 percent, 2.9 percent, and 37.8 percent, respectively. The prevalence of illness-specific PPSV23 in the 65+ age group was 50.0 percent for chronic liver disease and 49.4 percent for chronic lung disease, respectively.

Doctors most commonly reported a lack of municipal subsidies as a reason for suggesting the vaccination to patients with CMC aged 50–64 years, and respect to patients’ desires as a reason for offering the vaccination to patients 65 and older. Finally, PPSV23 is underrepresented among Japanese people aged 50–64 with CMC. Given the significant risk of pneumococcal infectious illness among CMC patients, doctors and local governments must boost public awareness to increase vaccination rates.