Imaging examinations of the thorax frequently uncover pulmonary nodules. Nodule management is based on prior imaging tests for documenting stability and, without such priors, serial imaging assessment based on patient age, smoking status and nodule characteristics including size, border features and nodule attenuation. In many cases, accidentally discovered nodules, especially tiny ones, turn out to be benign due to a lack of development on serial imaging examination, therefore treating them conservatively is the preferred strategy. Bigger solid nodules, particularly those larger than 1 cm in size, or cavitation inside a nodule, on the other hand, indicate a possibly more aggressive, or even “active,” process that typically need final examination. Although the differential diagnosis of solid nodules and cavitary nodules is similar, cavitation frequently raises the likelihood of current infection or cancer. 

Furthermore, the occurrence of cavitation inside a nodular pulmonary opacity can be found with a variety of noninfectious, inflammatory diseases that are treated quite differently than infection or malignancy, and so a definite diagnosis is typically necessary in these circumstances. Finally, problems such as spontaneous pneumothorax, hemopneumothorax, pyothorax, and even bronchopleural fistula might occur as a result of cavitary lung diseases.