For a study, researchers sought to characterize the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D) and hyperglycemia across the Americas from 1990 to 2019. Using projections from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019, investigators assessed the prevalence of diabetes in persons aged 20 and older and high fasting plasma glucose in adults aged 25 and older across 39 countries and territories distributed throughout 6 regions in the Americas from 1990 to 2019. Statistics on deaths caused by diabetes and diabetic kidney disease were primarily gathered through vital registration. Years of life lost (YLLs) were assessed based on the prevalence and severity of diabetes-related complications, and years lived with disability (YLDs)  were computed by multiplying the number of deaths by the average life expectancy at the age at which the death occurred. The YLDs and YLLs were added together to get the Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). They used the Healthcare Access and Quality Index and the Socio-demographic Index to evaluate the relationship between a country’s degree of development and its ability to deliver high-quality medical treatment and to determine if diabetes prevalence is related. Study group also calculated the percentage of diabetes burden attributable to each risk factor. Overall, diabetes is expected to be responsible for 5.9% of all deaths in the Americas in 2019, with an anticipated total of 409 000 (95% uncertainty area 373,000-443,000) persons aged 20 or older dying from the disease. High fasting plasma glucose was associated with 4,401 DALYs (1,930-5,265 per 100,000 individuals) in the Americas, while diabetes was responsible for 2,266 (1,930-2,649) DALYs (1,930-2,649) per 100,000 persons. DALYs were largely caused by type 2 diabetes and were unevenly distributed, with the highest rates in central Latin America and the Caribbean and the lowest rates in high-income North America and southern Latin America. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes grew by 27.4% (22.0% to 32.5%) between 1990 and 2019, as measured by the number of DALYs. This growth was most pronounced in the Andean regions of Latin America and the wealthy regions of North America. Better diabetes prevalence was connected with a greater burden for type 1 and type 2 diabetes worldwide, whereas better Socio-demographic and Healthcare Access and Quality Indices were associated with a lower burden. High BMI was the primary load risk factor (63.2%), followed by dietary risks (27.5%). Since 1990, disability’s share of total burden has continuously climbed; by 2019, it will be over 50%. The Americas have a disproportionately high diabetes burden.

 

Source: thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(22)00186-3/fulltext