Adults with CKD with limited health literacy had a higher risk for disease progression, hospitalization, cardiovascular events, and mortality, regardless of adjustment for potential confounders, when compared with adults with adequate health literacy, according to a study published in Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation. Mayra L. Estrella, PhD, MPH, and colleagues evaluated data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (N=3,715) to examine the associations of health literacy with CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and other comorbidities. Participants with limited health literacy had an increased risk for CKD progression (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.71), hospitalization (rate ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.26-1.40), cardiovascular events (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.39-2.00), and cardiovascular (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.69-3.38), non-cardiovascular (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01- 1.60), and all-cause (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.27-1.86) mortality