Endovascular salvage plays an important role in dialysis access care. Angioplasty using standard high- and ultrahigh-pressure balloon is the mainstay of therapy, while the use of cutting balloons and balloons designed to deliver pharmacologically active agents to the site of recurrent stenosis is demonstrating improved performance for specific targets that have to be further defined. Stents and stent grafts are additional tools for use at access segments predisposed for inward remodeling such as the cephalic arch or basilic swing point. The juxta-anastomotic segment has particular relevance in maturation of autogenous accesses as well as maintenance of access flow volume. Depending on the location of the access in the forearm or upper arm, and which artery is feeding into the access vein, any type of balloon angioplasty and stent or stent graft placement may be used to establish and maintain patency.


Reference link-https://www.ackdjournal.org/article/S1548-5595(20)30074-4/fulltext