This study states that Acute kidney injury continues to be a highly occurring disease in the intensive care unit, specifically affecting up to a third of critically ill neonates as per various studies. Although first-line treatments of acute kidney injury are noninvasive, kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is indicated when conservative management modes fail. There are various modalities of KRT which can be used for neonatal populations, including peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and continuous KRT. However, these KRT modalities present their own challenges in this specific patient population Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce each of these KRT modalities in terms of their challenges, advances, and future directions, with specific emphasis on new technology including the Cardio-Renal Pediatric Emergency Dialysis Machine, Newcastle infant dialysis and ultrafiltration system, and the Aquadex system for ultrafiltration.

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