Parkinson’s disease, like other neurodegenerative conditions, is characterized by abnormal protein buildup, inflammation, and neuron death. Although certain recognized hereditary risk factors exist, genetics alone cannot explain most cases. As a result, it was critical to identify the environmental elements that impose risk and the processes by which they operate.
Recent epidemiological research has discovered that exposure to air pollution is connected with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease development, albeit not all results were consistent. The variations between these studies were most likely attributable to differences in the components of air pollution, the timing and methodology used to quantify exposures, and the adjustment for other factors. Air pollution may raise the risk of Parkinson’s disease through various pathways, including direct neuronal damage, production of systemic inflammation leading to central nervous system inflammation, and changes in gut physiology and the microbiota.
Air pollution represents a new risk factor for Parkinson’s disease development. Various putative pathways that promote neuropathology have been suggested, providing biological plausibility. These processes are likely related to developing other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s. The subject is in its early stages, but a more excellent knowledge of how environmental exposures impact neurodegenerative pathogenesis is critical for lowering disease incidence and identifying disease-modifying therapeutics.