This review will go through recent developments in identifying airway endotypes in asthma based on gene expression, as well as the connection between these endotypes and clinical characteristics. Asthmatic airway expression profiling studies continue to demonstrate considerable variation in airway inflammation and functioning. Recent research has identified a number of different but related Th2 inflammatory asthma endotypes. Furthermore, new indicators of Th2 inflammation are being discovered in nasal brushing and generated sputum cell collections. New research indicates the presence of several non-Th2-driven asthma molecular endotypes, including those associated with neutrophilic inflammation, airway remodelling, and chemosensory dysfunction. Many of these endotypes have been linked to clinical illness characteristics and therapy response.

Asthmatic patients’ molecular endotyping utilising gene expression profiling of airway samples is assisting in the discovery of disease causes and potential new therapeutic targets. Endotyping technique advancements provide the potential for future customised asthma therapy.