For a study, researchers determined that the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) gathered data on all patients who have procedures for degenerative and/or deformity reasons. They wanted to see which factors are significantly connected with return-to-work after lumbar surgery at long-term follow-up. According to previous research, education, gender, race, comorbidities, and preoperative symptoms all enhanced the likelihood of returning to work 3 months following lumbar surgery. The researchers wanted to see if these changes were maintained at 1 and 2 years after surgery and differed between preoperatively employed and unemployed patients. For all patients receiving lumbar procedures from 2014 to 2019, MSSIC was contacted. All of the patients planned to return to work after their surgery. Patients were monitored for up to 2 years after surgery. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to calculate association measures. Return to work rates climbed from 63% (3542/5591) after 90 days to 75% (3143/4147) in 1 year and 74% (2133/2866) in 2 years. Neither clinical nor surgical characteristics predicted return-to-work at all 3-time intervals: 90 days, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively, according to generalized estimating equations. At all follow-up points, only socioeconomic characteristics were statistically significant. The most significant relationships with return-to-work were preoperative employment, followed by insurance status. Insurance was the only predictor having significant relationships with return-to-work at all three follow-up periods in a subanalysis of preoperatively employed patients. Return-to-work rates among unemployed patients improved from 29% (455/1100) at 90 days to 44% (495/608) at 1 year and 46% (366/426) 2 years after surgery. Medicaid, as opposed to commercial Insurance, and male gender were the only 2 significant predictors linked with return-to-work at all three follow-up intervals. Insurance status is a crucial indicator of employment status in patients seeking a long-term return to work after lumbar surgery.