HIV+ people are advised to have an annual influenza vaccine because of their heightened vulnerability to infection. However, anti-influenza neutralization antibodies (Nab) are only effective in some HIV+ patients who are on virally suppressed antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study,  a cohort trial was performed containing 40 people treated with HIV+ ART who received a single dose of seasonal flu vaccine. On days 0, 7, 14 and 28, blood samples were obtained and ELISA and micro-neutralization were used to calculate overall antibodies to flu vaccines and Nab serologic responses. Transcriptional profiling and immunological tests were measured in peripheral cell blood mononuclear (PBMCs). In HIV-infected subjects on day 7 following the vaccinations, increased levels of CD4+T proliferation and B-cells with their respective subtypes were seen relative to pre-immunization.

A reciprocal correlation with the influenza-specific H1N1 Nab for apoptosis of CD4+T and B cells can also be seen. On the basis of Nab response after vaccination to any subtype of influenza HIV + participants were stratified as non-responder influenza vaccine responders and non-respondents.

The present research shows a detailed immune regulatory pathway for influenza-led antibody response and information about the bioinformatics of influenza mediated antibody producing vaccine responders and non-responsive antibody in ART-treated HIV patients.