The most frequent hematologic anomaly is anemia, which is defined as a decrease in the concentration of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood. Iron deficiency and abrupt blood loss are the two most prevalent causes of anemia during pregnancy and puerperium. Iron needs rise during pregnancy, and failure to maintain adequate iron levels may have negative maternal-fetal effects. 

The goal of this paper is to offer a brief summary of the causes of anemia during pregnancy, discuss iron needs, and make suggestions for screening and clinical care of anemia during pregnancy.