For a study, it was determined that Anterior ocular inflammatory disease (AOID), which encompassed ocular allergies, different kinds of infectious conjunctivitis, and dry eye illnesses, affected more than 40% of the population in the United States (tear film dysfunction). The current economic expenses of AOID therapy were examined by the researchers for a study. Rapid breakthroughs in the pharmacotherapy of the anterior surface of the eye have been achieved as the immune pathophysiology underpinning various illnesses, spanning from innate Toll-like receptors to more specific IgE receptors, were being unraveled. Despite these gains in AOID immune pathophysiology, progressive novel therapeutics that targeted inflammatory mediators and their receptors with advances in ophthalmic development remained restricted. In 2011, AOIDs accounted for 40% of the cost of ophthalmic medications, with dry eye (31%) being the most common, followed by anti-infectives (30%), anti-allergics (25%), and anti-inflammatory agents (14%). With escalating treatment expenses, there was still a need for cost-effective drugs, as well as the development of treatment algorithms to improve therapeutic outcomes.

The cost of AOIDs rose considerably in recent years, with prescription medication costs surpassing $7 billion. There was a growing need for significant investment in the industry to enhance results and give more effective alternatives to the present treatment choices.