Myositis, arthritis, and interstitial lung disease are all symptoms of the antisynthetase syndrome. The most frequent related autoantibody is anti–Jo-1. The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of anti–Jo-1 antisynthetase syndrome in a single Indian institution. This was a single-center, medical records review research that included individuals with anti–Jo-1 antisynthetase syndrome during a 10-year period. This research comprised 27 individuals with anti–Jo-1 antisynthetase syndrome, with an average age of 40 9.2 years and a female predominance. Only four cases had the typical triad at the time of presentation. The majority of patients came with an incomplete form, with two clinical characteristics in 11 patients and a single feature in 12 patients at the time of their initial presentation. Seven patients came with just polyarthritis, six of whom had previously been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The time span between being diagnosed with “rheumatoid arthritis” and developing antisynthetase syndrome ranged from 3 to 20 years. There was a substantially longer delay in diagnosing antisynthetase syndrome in patients who had just arthritis at the start, a greater frequency of rheumatoid factor, and a lower frequency of anti–Ro-52. With the exception of two patients, the overall result was favorable, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group class 1 or 2 in the majority of cases.

Anti–Jo-1 antisynthetase syndrome is frequently incomplete and only manifests as arthritis. For many years, many individuals are identified and treated as having rheumatoid arthritis before being diagnosed with the antisynthetase syndrome. By carefully seeking minor signs, being aware of this presentation may aid in earlier diagnosis.