Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus may develop antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis. Positive anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, as well as lupus anticoagulant, are required for diagnosis. On the other hand, Cardiolipin is a minor component of human vascular endothelial cells, with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine being the predominant components. Due to a central retinal vein obstruction, a 15-year-old female suffered significant left intraretinal bleeding. Her test results revealed positive serum anti-nuclear antibodies and reduced serum complement, as well as a butterfly rash. She was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus during this period. Her serum anti-cardiolipin IgG and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, as well as lupus anticoagulant, were negative. Still, her anti-phosphatidylcholine, anti-phosphatidylethanolamine, anti-phosphatidylinositol, and anti-phosphatidylserine IgG antibodies were elevated.
Central retinal vein blockage in children is uncommon. Antiphospholipid antibody-related thrombosis can occur even in patients who do not have anti-cardiolipin or anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies or are using a lupus anticoagulant.