Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Cardiology for April 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Coronary Vessel Wall Thickness Surrogate for CAD in Women

TUESDAY, April 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Coronary vessel wall thickness (VWT) measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a significant surrogate of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) among asymptomatic women at low or intermediate risk, according to a study published online April 25 in Radiology: Cardiothoracic Imaging.

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Work Stress, Impaired Sleep Tied to CVD Risk in Workers With HTN

TUESDAY, April 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Work stress and impaired sleep are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among workers with hypertension, according to a study published online April 27 in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

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Maternal Comorbidity Higher for Women With Congenital Heart Defects

TUESDAY, April 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Pregnant women with congenital heart defects (CHDs) are more likely to have comorbidities and experience adverse events during delivery, according to a study published in the May 7 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Combo Nicotine Replacement Tx Ups Success in Quitting Smoking

TUESDAY, April 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — People who use combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are more likely to successfully quit smoking than people who use a single form of NRT, according to a review published online April 18 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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Poor Olfaction Tied to Elevated Long-Term Mortality in Seniors

MONDAY, April 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Among older adults, poor olfaction is associated with elevated long-term mortality, according to a study published online April 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Intensive Blood Pressure Therapy Aids Patients With T2DM

MONDAY, April 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Patients with type 2 diabetes who receive intensive treatment to keep their blood pressure levels at 130/80 mm Hg or below experience fewer heart attacks, strokes, and other diabetes complications, according to a study published online April 29 in Hypertension.

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Events for Living Kidney Donors Mainly Occur After Two Years

MONDAY, April 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Overall, about 14.7 percent of living kidney donors have postdonation events, most of which occur more than two years after donation, according to a study published online April 12 in JAMA Network Open.

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Longer Duration of Antibiotic Use Tied to Risk for CVD in Women

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For women in middle and late adulthood, longer duration of antibiotic use is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, according to a study published online April 24 in the European Heart Journal.

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Swapping Red Meat for Plant-Based Proteins May Cut CVD Risk

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Substituting red meat with high-quality plant protein sources, but not with fish or low-quality carbohydrates, leads to greater improvements in blood lipids and lipoproteins, according to a review published online April 9 in Circulation.

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Gender Differences Seen in Adverse Drug Reactions

FRIDAY, April 26, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The risk for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be higher for women, even when accounting for gender differences in drug use, according to a study published online April 2 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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FDA Announces New Steps to Reduce Risks Tied to Surgical Staplers

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration this week announced three new efforts to protect patients from malfunctions, injuries, and deaths associated with the use of surgical staplers for internal use and implantable surgical staples.

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Eating Breakfast Tied to Lower Risk for Death From CVD

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Skipping breakfast is significantly associated with an increased risk for death from heart disease, according to a study published in the April 30 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Emergency Medical Diseases Account for About Half of Mortality

THURSDAY, April 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Emergency medical diseases (EMDs) contribute to about half of mortality and two-fifths of the burden of diseases globally, according to a study recently published in BMJ Global Health.

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PCI Beneficial for All Categories of Older AMI Patients

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For older patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is beneficial across age strata, according to a research letter published online April 23 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Risk-Based Screening Improves Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Cardiovascular risk screening intervals based on risk category-specific progression rates would perform better and improve cost-effectiveness compared with established five-year screening intervals, according to a study published in the April issue of The Lancet Public Health.

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Sleeping Pill Use Tied to Greater Need for BP Meds in Older Adults

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Consumption of sleeping pills is linked to a subsequent increase in the number of antihypertensive drugs taken among older adults, according to a study published online March 25 in Geriatrics & Gerontology International.

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In Severe, Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis, Early Surgery May Help

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Early aortic valve replacement (AVR) may improve survival in patients with severe, asymptomatic aortic stenosis, according to a study published online March 20 in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

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Risk Model Developed for Readmission After AMI in Seniors

TUESDAY, April 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A risk model has been developed and validated for hospital readmission within 30 days after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in older patients and has demonstrated moderate performance, according to a study published online April 23 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Moderate/Vigorous Exercise Attenuates Risks of Sitting

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) equivalent to meeting current recommendations attenuates the association of sitting with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, according to a study published online April 22 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Cardiometabolic Risk Better ID’d in Children Reclassified to Higher BP

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Children reclassified to higher blood pressure categories based on 2017 pediatric hypertension definitions are at increased risk for developing adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, according to a study published online April 22 in Hypertension.

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High Resting Heart Rate Linked to Increased Cardiac Risk in Men

MONDAY, April 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — High resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with an increased risk for death and cardiovascular events in men, according to a study published online April 15 in Open Heart.

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Statins Safe, Effective in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Daily atorvastatin is safe for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, conferring a similar degree of risk reduction in these patients as in other populations, according to a study published online April 15 in Arthritis & Rheumatology.

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Atrasentan Tied to Lower Risk for Kidney Events in T2DM With CKD

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Atrasentan is associated with a reduced risk for renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, according to a study published online April 14 in The Lancet to coincide with the International Society of Nephrology World Congress of Nephrology, held from April 12 to 15 in Melbourne, Australia.

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National Hand Hygiene Initiative Successful in Australia

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) has successfully sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance, according to a study recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases and presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, held from April 13 to 16 in Amsterdam.

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Loan Forgiveness, Educational Debt May Affect Practice Patterns

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Increased educational debt appears to directly influence physician practice choice, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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Acetaminophen Safe as First-Line Analgesic for Most Older Adults

FRIDAY, April 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Despite a potential increased risk for stroke in patients with diabetes, acetaminophen is a safe first-line analgesic for most older adults living in nursing homes, according to a study published online March 26 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Sixty People Charged in Massive Opioid Painkiller Investigation

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Fifty-three medical professionals, including 31 doctors, are among the 60 people charged by U.S. authorities for their alleged involvement in the illegal prescribing and distribution of opioid painkillers.

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Machine Learning IDs Risk for Familial Hypercholesterolemia

THURSDAY, April 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A machine learning classifier can effectively identify patients at risk for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), according to a study published online April 11 in npj Digital Medicine.

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AI Can Identify Model of Cardiac Rhythm Device From Chest X-Ray

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A neural network can accurately identify the manufacturer and model group of a cardiac rhythm device from a chest radiograph, according to a study published online March 27 in the JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology.

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Stroke Hospitalizations Down in Black, White Medicare Enrollees

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Rates of hospitalization for stroke have fallen since 1988 for both black and white Medicare enrollees, while black men and women have had greater improvements in 30-day mortality after stroke, according to a study published in the April issue of Medical Care.

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Sleep Myths Are Commonly Circulated

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Commonly held sleep myths have a questionable evidence base, according to a study published online April 16 in Sleep Health.

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Mixed Effects Observed for Workplace Wellness Program

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A workplace wellness program improves certain self-reported health behaviors but does not impact clinical measures of health or health care spending, according to a study published in the April 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Intensive BP Lowering May Up Cognitive Decline in Elderly

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Older adults (aged ≥75 years) undergoing antihypertensive treatment with systolic blood pressure (SBP) >150 mm Hg have less cognitive decline than those with SBP <130 mm Hg, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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More Than 80 Percent of STEMI Patients Treated in ICU

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Most patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated in the intensive care unit (ICU), according to a study published in the April 22 issue of JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Over Half of Patients Have Suboptimal Response to Statins

TUESDAY, April 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — More than half of patients initiating statin therapy have a suboptimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response within 24 months, according to a study published online April 15 in Heart.

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Standardizing Demographics Ups Accuracy of Patient Matching

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Standardizing demographic data can improve the accuracy of patient matching, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Added Sugar Labeling Could Reduce CVD, Diabetes Cases

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration policy on added sugar labeling could be a cost-effective way of improving health, according to a study published online April 15 in Circulation.

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Normalizing BP in Elderly With Hypertension May Up Mortality

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Normalized blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality for older adults during hypertension treatment, with increased risk seen in octogenarians and those with previous cardiovascular events, according to a study recently published in the European Heart Journal.

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Operator-Directed Sedation Seems Safe in Peds Cardiac Cath

FRIDAY, April 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For carefully selected pediatric patients, operator-directed sedation (ODS) for congenital cardiac catheterization procedures is not associated with an increased risk for adverse events and may reduce case time and charges, according to a study published online April 10 in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Stress-Related Disorders Associated With Increased CVD Risk

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Stress-related disorders are associated with cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online April 10 in The BMJ.

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Domestic Responsibilities Tied to Physician Mothers’ Satisfaction

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For physician mothers in procedural specialties, being responsible for five or more domestic tasks is associated with an increased likelihood of career dissatisfaction, according to a study published online April 10 in JAMA Surgery.

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Very Low LDL-C, Triglycerides Tied to Hemorrhagic Stroke Risk in Women

THURSDAY, April 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Women with very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or low triglycerides have an increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke, according to a study published online April 10 in Neurology.

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People With Obesity Are Blatantly Dehumanized

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — People with obesity are not only commonly stigmatized, but are blatantly dehumanized, according to research published online April 2 in Obesity.

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Haptoglobin Expression Tied to Outcomes in Preterm Newborns

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The absence of haptoglobin (Hp) may be a marker of poor neonatal outcomes among preterm newborns exposed to in utero inflammation, according to a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial published online March 22 in EClinicalMedicine.

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Same Services More Expensive in Outpatient Than Office Settings

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The same services are more expensive when performed in outpatient versus office settings, according to a blog post from the Health Care Cost Institute.

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Cardiac-Specific Comorbidity Index Beats Generic Indexes

WEDNESDAY, April 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For patients admitted to the hospital with a cardiac condition, a cardiac-specific comorbidity index outperforms generic indexes for predicting mortality, according to study published online March 18 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Dietary Supplement Use Not Linked to Mortality Benefits

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For U.S. adults, dietary supplements are not associated with mortality benefits, according to a study published online April 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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More Secondary Prevention Meds May Reduce Deaths After AMI

TUESDAY, April 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For older nursing home residents, use of three or four secondary preventive medications following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with reduced mortality, according to a study published in the April issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Preventive Drugs Often Used in Last Year of a Cancer Patient’s Life

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Preventive drugs are frequently used in the last year of life among older adults with cancer, according to a study published online March 25 in Cancer.

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Alcohol, Drug Misuse Tied to Long-Term Health Problems

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — More than one-third of U.S. adults in recovery for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use have health problems related to previous substance use, according to a study published online March 16 in the Journal of Addiction Medicine.

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Early T2DM Diagnosis Linked to Increased Cardiovascular Risk

MONDAY, April 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The cardiovascular risks associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are greater for patients diagnosed before age 40 years, according to a study published online April 8 in Circulation.

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Short Sleep Duration, Not OSA, Linked to Daytime Sleepiness

THURSDAY, April 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Short sleep duration (SSD) is associated with daytime sleepiness, while obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, according to a study published online April 1 in CHEST.

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Readmission Risk Up With Shorter Stay at Nursing Facility

THURSDAY, April 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For patients with heart failure discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) and then home, the risk for readmission is highest during the first two days at home and is attenuated with a longer SNF length of stay, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.

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11 Million Deaths Attributable to Poor Diet in 2017

THURSDAY, April 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Suboptimal diet is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases, according to a study published online April 2 in The Lancet.

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Computer Model Predicts Risk for Ventricular Arrhythmia in ARVC

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A new model can predict the risk for incident ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC), according to a study published online March 27 in the European Heart Journal.

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For TAVR, Inverse Link Identified for Hospital Volume, Mortality

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Hospital volume is inversely associated with mortality for transfemoral transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) procedures, according to a study published online April 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Heart, Lungs From Hep C-Infected Donor Can Be Transplanted Safely

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Hearts and lungs from donors with hepatitis C viremia can be safely transplanted into patients without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study published online April 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Bariatric Embolization Feasible for Treatment of Severe Obesity

WEDNESDAY, April 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Bariatric embolization is well tolerated in severely obese adults and is associated with weight loss for up to 12 months, according to a study published online April 2 in Radiology.

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Americans Borrowed $88 Billion in Past Year to Pay for Health Care

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — About one in eight Americans borrowed a total of $88 billion in the past year to pay for health care, a new West Health-Gallup survey shows.

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Guidelines Address PFO Closure for Secondary Stroke Prevention

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In a Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions expert consensus statement published online March 21 in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, recommendations are presented for patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for the secondary prevention of recurrent stroke.

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Over-the-Counter Meds Save Health Care System Money

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — On average, each dollar spent on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines saves the U.S. health care system $7.20, totaling nearly $146 billion in annual savings, according to a report released March 18 by the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA).

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Best Practices Developed for Diagnosing, Managing MINOCA

TUESDAY, April 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In an American Heart Association scientific statement published online March 27 in Circulation, best practices are presented for diagnostic evaluation and management of myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA).

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Doctors Unclear on Legal Obligations in Caring for Patients With Disability

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Practicing physicians might not understand their legal responsibilities when caring for people with disability, which may contribute to inequalities in their care, according to a study published online April 1 in Health Affairs.

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Rates of CPR Before EMS Arrival Increased From 2000 to 2017

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The rates of compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CO-CPR) and standard CPR (S-CPR) before arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) have increased and are associated with improved survival over no CPR (NO-CPR), according to a study published online April 1 in Circulation.

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Liquid Meal Replacements Cut Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Liquid meal replacements in weight loss diets lead to modest reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors for overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a review published online March 28 in Diabetes Care.

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Meta-Analysis Links Shift Work to Risk for Ischemic Heart Disease

MONDAY, April 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Shift work is associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD), with evidence of a positive dose-response relationship between the risk for IHD and increasing duration of shift work, according to a meta-analysis published online March 29 in the Journal of Occupational Medicine.

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