New research was presented at ASH 2015, the American Society of Hypertension’s annual scientific meeting, from May 15 to 19 in New York City. The features below highlight some of the studies that emerged from the conference.
Stroke, Hypertension, & Sleep Duration
The Particulars: Studies have suggested that sleep duration may also be associated with several medical comorbidities, including stroke. Little is known regarding the effects of short or long sleep duration on stroke risk in patients with hypertension.
Data Breakdown: For a study, researchers assessed more than 200,000 patients with hypertension for sleep duration and a stroke diagnosis. Patients who reported very short sleep (<5 hours) or long sleep (>8 hours) had a higher risk of having a stroke when compared with health sleepers (7-8 hours).
Take Home Pearl: Patients with hypertension who report sleeping for very short or longer periods of time appear to have a higher risk for stroke.
Characterizing Resistant Hypertension by Age
The Particulars: Data are lacking on the characteristics of patients aged 80 and older with resistant hypertension.
Data Breakdown: Researchers in Alabama characterized more than 2,000 patients with resistant hypertension according to age in an ethnically diverse cohort. The following was observed, aged 40 or younger vs older than 70.
♦ Women: 43.6% vs 28.7%
♦ African American: 45.0% vs 19.8%
♦ Average length of hypertension: 8 years vs 21 years
♦ Average urinary sodium excretion: 195.6 mEq/24 hrs vs 146.8 eMq/24 hrs
♦ Average urinary potassium: 53.9 mEq/24 hrs vs 59.7 mEq/24 hrs
♦ Obstructive sleep apnea: 22.5% vs 16.2%
Take Home Pearl: Young patients with resistant hypertension appear more likely to be African American, women, obese, and on a high-sodium diet when compared with older patients.
Accelerated Vascular Aging in Obese & Diabetic Youths
The Particulars: Research suggests that arterial stiffening may contribute to the onset of hypertension and cardiovascular events in adults. The presence of accelerated arterial stiffening in high-risk youths has not been well-defined.
Data Breakdown: For a study, cardiovascular and glucose measures were taken and compared between patients aged 10 to 24 who were lean, obese, or had type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors at baseline worsened from lean to obese to type 2 diabetic participants. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and increases in arterial stiffness were greater in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes than in lean patients.
Take Home Pearls: Accelerated arterial stiffening appears to occur in obese and diabetic youths when compared with those who are lean. Those with more cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood should be targeted for aggressive cardiac care and stroke prevention.