Vitamin and trace element status (VTE) assessment is critical in the clinical treatment of the ill kid. In this position paper, researchers describe the different evaluation methodologies accessible to clinical practitioners and critically analyze the difficulties associated with their interpretation. Clinical examination, dietary evaluation, and detection of direct and indirect VTE biomarkers in biological samples are the four primary techniques for assessing an individual patient’s VTE body status. Clinical symptoms of VTE deficits often appear only when body reserves are severely reduced and are frequently difficult to identify or distinguish from other non-nutrient-related reasons. In illness and individual patient evaluation, dietary assessment of micronutrients can be incorrect and imprecise, but it may be beneficial to supplement findings from other VTE assessment approaches. The use of biomarkers is the most common approach to assessing VTE status in routine practice; however, in the presence of a systemic inflammatory response and in the absence of appropriate pediatric reference intervals, interpretation of biomarker results can be difficult and potentially mislead clinical practice.

The use of a multimodal approach, combining clinical examination, dietary evaluation, and laboratory biomarkers, is recommended as the best technique to determine individual patients’ VTE status. In the presence of acute inflammatory circumstances, VTE measurements in plasma should be substituted with biomarkers that are unaffected by the systemic inflammatory response or postponed until the inflammatory state resolves.