The purpose of the analysis is to offer the latest up-to-date research on atopic dermatitis and its relationship to food allergies. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by a compromised skin barrier caused by a combination of factors such as genetic factors, immune dysregulation, and skin microbiome dysbiosis. Infants with transient skin barrier damage and/or chronic atopic dermatitis are more vulnerable to food allergy (during the so-called atopic march), with up to half of patients showing positive food-specific IgE and one-third of moderate cases of atopic dermatitis exhibiting positive symptoms on oral food challenge. A large number of children with atopic dermatitis have asymptomatic food sensitization, and skin examination to detect possible food causes is not advised unless the patient has a history of food allergy and/or moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis that is unresponsive to optimal topical treatment. Indeed, indiscriminate testing will result in a high percentage of false-positive results and adverse dietary evictions. Early skincare with emollients and topical steroid cream, as well as early application of particularly allergenic diets, are promising methods for preventing food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis.
More research is needed to determine risk factors for atopic dermatitis in order to help reduce the occurrence of food allergies in this high-risk population.