Atopic dermatitis is a recurrent inflammatory skin condition that is persistent. In the context of a complicated genetic background, there is growing evidence for the significance of particular allergenic trigger factors in the maintenance of skin inflammation in individuals with sensitive atopic dermatitis. Clinical and in-vitro data on allergen-induced adaptive immune responses in atopic dermatitis are summarized in this study. Emerging new findings, notably on adaptive immune responses to inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis, have been reported. The development of a flare-up by grass pollen exposure in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients may be proven in a randomized controlled trial. T cells directed to the two main allergens of house dust mites have been found to exhibit a Th2 phenotype, as well as a Th17 and Th2/Th17 phenotype in individuals with hypersensitive atopic dermatitis. In the case of microbial antigens, T cell-mediated immune responses to proteins from the species itself have been found, as has been documented for Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia spp. Furthermore, particular T-cell activation to cross-reacting human proteins may further exacerbate the illness in different people. The significance of ‘autoallergic’ events in atopic dermatitis is now being investigated as a result of human antigens with no known cross-reactivity to environmental allergens.

Immunological and clinical features of adaptive immune responses to allergens, as well as the discovery of new allergen sources that may be important to atopic dermatitis might be the basis for the development of successful treatment options for allergic inflammation in the future.