The goals of this literature review are to evaluate existing methodologies and emerging technologies used for resident assessment and feedback, with an emphasis on surgical trainees.

The Milestone method was created by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in 1999 as a mechanism for summative evaluation. The organization gives individual programs liberty in terms of how assessment and feedback are carried out. Previously, questionnaire assessments and informal verbal remarks were used. However, with the advancement of technology, they have taken on new forms like crowdsourcing, mobile platforms, and simulation. There is limited evidence on innovative approaches, but studies suggest potential, noting the minimal cost and a beneficial influence on resident education.

There is no such thing as an “optimal method” for evaluation and feedback. However, it is clear that a multimodal strategy based on the ACGME Milestones may be successful and useful in program guidance.