Better cognitive function and QOL were observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) with maintained residual kidney function (RKF), according to a study published in BMC Nephrology. Additionally, Mohammed K. Nassar, MD, and colleagues found that duration of HD and patient age were related to RKF and physical composite score (PCS). Patients with end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of RKF. In addition to basic laboratory investigations, patients underwent to Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for evaluating cognitive function and Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF) for assessing QOL. A notably higher score for KDQOL domains and MoCA score were observed in patients with RKF, and a positive correlation between RKF and both MoCA score and PCS of QOL was found. Statistically significant positive associations between MoCA score and both PCS and mental composite score (MCS) were observed.