For a study, it was determined that the neuropathology of bipolar disease (BD) was linked to oxidative stress. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the antioxidative genes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) were linked to structural neuroimaging abnormalities in young people with BD. SOD2 rs4880 and GPX3 rs3792797 SNP genotypes, as well as structural magnetic resonance imaging, were collected from 147 young people (BD= 75; healthy controls=72). Surface area, volume, and thickness data for areas of interest (prefrontal cortex [PFC], caudal anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus) and vertex-wise whole-brain analyses were calculated using FreeSurfer. Volume, area, and thickness studies were adjusted for age, gender, race, and intracranial volume.

Analysis of regions of interest indicated diagnosis-by-SOD2 rs4880 interaction effects for caudal anterior cingulate cortex volume and surface area, as well as PFC volume; in each case, the BD GG genotype group had lower volume/area than the healthy controls GG genotype group. For PFC surface area, there was a substantial BD diagnosis GPX3 rs3793797 interaction effect, with the area being smaller in the BD A-allele carrier group compared to the other genotype groups. In the BD SOD2 rs4880 GG group and the BD GPX3 rs3793797 A-allele carrier group, the vertex-wise analysis indicated substantial interaction effects in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas connected to smaller brain structures. Researchers discovered preliminary evidence that SOD2 rs4880 and GPX3 rs3792797 were related to brain structures in kids with BD in areas important to BD in a distinct way. Additional neuroimaging phenotypes and blood levels of oxidative stress indicators should be included in future research.