For a study, researchers sought to enhance the conceptual and practical definitions of the term “self-management of cancer pain” in the concept analysis article by identifying associated antecedents, qualities, and consequences. CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo were used to conduct a systematic search. Between 2004 and 2019, eight studies on “self-management of cancer pain or self-care of cancer pain” were identified. Self-efficacy, integration of pain relief strategies into daily life, decision-making related to pain management, the procedure for resolving pain-related concerns, and initiating interactions with healthcare experts were all attributes of self-management of cancer pain. Knowledge of pain evaluation and management, cognitive abilities, motivation, pain therapy, patient education and counseling, social support, and all parties’ accountability were antecedents. Pain relief, enhanced quality of life, and increased opioid consumption were all possible outcomes. Cancer pain self-management was described as a self-regulation process aimed at encouraging patients to actively employ skills gained via self-efficacy development to participate in their pain management. The outcome might improve their quality of life by reducing pain, depression, and anxiety and enhancing social support.