The public health risks posed by bladder cancer (BC) are significant, although reliable biomarkers for BC diagnosis, especially at an early stage, are currently in short supply. The ability to detect accurate biomarkers linked with early-stage BC is critical for facilitating earlier treatment and a better outcome. Around 4 freely accessible gene-expression profiles from early-stage BC were used to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Hub genes were analyzed for their protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and their ability to ensure their own survival. Using the MethSurv database, researchers analyzed whether or not gene methylation was associated with prognosis. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database, they looked for pairs of genes that were found to be coexpressed and then measured their expression levels in vitro. Utilizing information from The Cancer Genome Atlas, a network of competing endogenous RNA was constructed, and immune cell infiltration in BC was mapped. A total of 213 DEGs were integrated, and 10 hub genes were found to be involved: CDH1, IGFBP3, PPARG, SDC1, EPCAM, ACTA2, COL3A1, TPM1, ACTC1, and ACTN1. CDH1 expression appeared to rise from the tumor’s early stages and was linked negatively with methylation. Around 6 methylated CDH1 sites were associated with a favorable prognosis, while 1 was associated with an abnormal 1. High CDH1 expression was inversely correlated with infiltrations by the majority of immune cells. This included pDCs, regulatory T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, DCs, and natural killer cells. CDH1 appeared to be directly regulated by miR-383 and had a very strong positive correlation with EPCAM. The detected oncogenic changes provide theoretical support for developing novel biomarkers to advance early-stage BC diagnosis and individualized therapy.
- Business of Medicine
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