This study states that Obesity is an increasingly prevalent chronic condition. Its multiple causes and the complexity of its treatment pose challenges for health professionals. To explore and describe the challenges for obesity management in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to health professionals. An exploratory quantitative web-based study, carried out in 2018 with health professionals, developed from the first stage of a national project that aims to examine the management of obesity in Brazil. The questionnaire was self-applied. Invitations to participate in the research were sent by the Ministry of Health, Health Department of Minas Gerais and members of the research group. We collected data on sex, age, professional category, region and level of care. The challenges were investigated using a Likert scale and categorized into structure and work process. We evaluated 1323 professionals, of which about 45% were dietitians, 90.2% were women, and 83.1% self-reported working in primary health care. The main barriers cited included a high demand for curative and individual assistance, the presence of comorbidities, and the absence or insufficient access to instructional materials, professional qualification and lack of support.