This study states that The incidence and prevalence of renal replacement therapy has continued to increase in the pediatric population. Recent data have shown that hemodialysis was the most frequently used dialysis modality, especially in pediatric ESRD patients (age 0-21 years). A well-functioning vascular access is required for effective hemodialysis and choosing the best vascular access option for pediatric patients can be difficult. Pediatric vascular options include arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheters (CVCs). There is a national initiative for fistula first-catheter last approach; however, CVCs have been reported as the most conventionally utilized vascular access option in pediatric patients. The use of CVCs should be minimized or avoided as they are associated with high risk of infections, thrombosis, and other complications.


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