The aim is To evaluate whether change in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) management strategies over time had an impact on respiratory outcomes in premature infants.

Prospectively collected data were included from all preterm infants born at 23-30 weeks gestational age with PDA admitted to the Children’s Hospital of the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (epoch 1) and January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 (epoch 2). The 2 epochs were compared for approach with PDA diagnosis and subsequent management strategies and respiratory outcomes. Significantly fewer infants were treated for PDA in epoch 2 (54%) compared with epoch 1 (90%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that infants in epoch 2, with later PDA diagnosis and less frequent PDA treatment, had greater odds of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), composite of BPD or death, and more treatment with postnatal steroids than in epoch 1. The change in approach to diagnosis and management of PDA, from a more proactive and aggressive approach during the earlier epoch 1 to a more expectant approach during the subsequent epoch 2, was associated with worse respiratory outcomes, including increase in BPD and in BPD or death.

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