Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex condition with varying responses to anti-inflammatory medication and surgical therapy. Even with newly discovered mAbs targeting type 2 (T2) reactivity, a significant proportion of patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) had unsatisfactory results. Identifying patients with a poor prognosis was crucial for identifying targeted medicines that can enhance treatment outcomes. For a study, researchers focused on clinical and biological indicators related to CRS patient prognosis under traditional medicinal and surgical therapies, as well as an updated overview of possible markers for T2 biologics.

Allergic rhinitis, asthma, previous sinus surgery, nasal polyps, tissue eosinophilia, and neutrophilia, blood eosinophilia, and high levels of Charcot-Leyden crystal, cystatin SN, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and interleukin (IL)-5 in nasal secretions have all been linked to a poor prognosis in patients with CRS. In patients with refractory CRSwNP, blood eosinophil levels might be used as a biomarker for anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) and anti-IL-5R (benralizumab) biologics.

Several clinical and biochemical indicators have been linked to poor response to conventional therapies in patients with CRS; however, the bulk of these need to be confirmed by large-scale multicenter investigations. More work was needed to find biomarkers for biologics.