For a study, researchers sought to understand four distinctive clinical traits that were connected to outcomes and treatment responses in patients with non-COVID-19 sepsis. In total, 52,274 critically sick patients were evaluated, including 3 cohorts without COVID-19 sepsis and 2 cohorts with the condition (admitted before and after dexamethasone became the recommended course of treatment) (non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia sepsis, bacterial pneumonia sepsis, and bacterial sepsis of non-pulmonary origin). Between these cohorts, there were differences in the phenotypic distributions and the corresponding mortality. Although there were more patients with the δ-phenotypic in both bacterial sepsis groups than in the viral sepsis cohorts, the distribution of the δ-phenotype was quite similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia sepsis cohorts. After dexamethasone medication was initiated, more patients had the δ-phenotype (6% vs. 11% in the pre- and post-dexamethasone COVID-19 groups, respectively; P<0.001). Across the cohorts, the α-phenotype was associated with the highest mortality, whereas the δ-phenotype was associated with the best outcome. While having no discernible influence on the survival rates of the other δ-phenotypes among COVID-19 patients, dexamethasone significantly boosted the δ-phenotype’s survival (60% vs. 41%, P<0.001). Classification of a serious illness For COVID-19 patients, developing clinical profiles could help with prognostication, therapeutic efficacy prediction, and individualized medicine.