There was no standard of treatment for the aggressive and uncommon subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma known as plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). For a study, researchers examined every patient in British Columbia, Canada, who had a histologically verified PBL diagnosis between 1997 and 2019.

A total of 42 individuals were found, of whom 15 (36%) tested positive for HIV and 9 (21%) received chronic immunosuppression. Thirty-one patients received a curative-intent therapy regimen predominantly composed of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone; 74% of these patients experienced a response, but 61% relapsed after a median follow-up of 7.5 months. The five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 18% [95% CI: 6%, 30%] and 22% (95% CI: 8%, 36%) with median 8 and 15 months, respectively, at a median follow-up of 8 years for the entire group.

According to immunological status, there were no changes in the recurrence rate (P = 0.962), PFS (P = 0.228), or OS (P = 0.340). Five-year PFS and OS for patients treated to cure their illness were 24% (95% CI: 8%, 40%) and 31% (95% CI: 13%, 49%), with medians of 18 and 27 months, respectively. Survival rates were low in the population-based cohort of PBL patients spanning 20 years. Ultimately, additional research was required to provide more efficient treatment plans and to increase patient survival.