Cognitive impairment in kidney failure is com- mon and has significant implications for informed decision making and treatment choices, according to a study published in the Journal of Renal Care. Therefore, routine assessment of cognitive function is an important part of clinical practice, wrote the study authors, who sought to determine the preva- lence and factors associated with cognitive impair- ment in people with kidney failure. Participants (n = 222) in the prospective, cross-sectional study included patients with chronic kidney disease grade 5 (CKD G5), grouped into those not treat- ed with dialysis, those undertaking dialysis inde- pendently or in a facility (CKD 5D), and those with a kidney transplant (CKD 5T). Kidney disease type and comorbidities were extracted from partic- ipants’ hospital records. Participants were mostly male (61.26%), and diabetes was the primary cause of kidney disease (34%). The prevalence rate for cognitive impairment was 34%, although it was significantly higher for those in CKD G5 com- pared with other groups. In addition to CKD G5, age, diabetes, hypertension, education, hemoglo- bin, albumin, parathyroid hormone, and length of time on treatment were found to be associated with cognitive impairment.