Immune checkpoint inhibitors, often known as ICIs, have brought about a sea change in the treatment of a wide variety of cancers, namely advanced melanoma, non–small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers have seen a dramatic improvement in their chances of survival and prognosis since these treatments were first made available. Unfortunately, the better outcomes had come at the cost of considerable immune-related adverse effects, the most prevalent of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. Diarrhea and colitis were common symptoms when gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events occurred. The treatment of ICI-induced colitis was mostly directed by retrospective research and the judgment of specialists. High-dose corticosteroids were effective in treating a considerable proportion of cases of ICI-induced colitis; however, further treatment with biologics might be necessary for certain individuals. There was a lack of knowledge regarding the potential risk factors that might put people at risk for ICI-induced colitis. Before beginning ICI treatment, patients’ risks could be stratified using future research findings that would elucidate these risk factors and build a scoring system. It was hoped that this approach would assist doctors and patients in maintaining a high index of suspicion regarding ICI-induced colitis, which would reduce the number of severe cases. Similarly, further research should study potential protective factors against ICI-induced colitis, as this could potentially allow more patients to benefit from ICI treatment risk-freely.

SOURCE – journals.lww.com/jcge/Abstract/2022/08000/Immunotherapy_induced_Colitis__A_Comprehensive.3.aspx