The aim of this study is to determine how Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the leading causes of kidney allograft failure and is usually mediated by anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). Activation of classical pathway of the complement system is responsible for downstream effects of DSA and account for significant manifestations of AMR. Currently, the treatment of AMR is based on strategies to remove preformed antibodies or to prevent their production; however, these strategies are often unsuccessful. It is theoretically possible to inhibit complement activity to prevent the effect of DSA on kidney allograft function. Complement inhibitors such as eculizumab, a complement 5 monoclonal antibody, and complement 1 esterase inhibitors (C1 INHs) have been used in prevention and treatment of AMR with variable success. Eculizumab and C1 INH seem to reduce the incidence of early AMR and allow transplantation in highly sensitized kidney transplant recipients, but data on their long-term effect on kidney allograft function are limited.


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