This study states that the Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare. The vast majority occur secondary to penetrating injuries. High-output cardiac failure is a well-recognized serious complication of AVFs, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify predictors of heart failure (HF) in patients with traumatic AVF.

Both PubMed/MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL were searched (up to June 2019) for studies reporting individual patient data on the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with AVF secondary to penetrating trauma. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, no specification of symptoms, a cranial, spinal, or cardiac AVF location, and an iatrogenic mechanism of injury. The present study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A total of 274 AVF patients from 15 case series and 177 case reports were included. The median age at presentation was 32 years (interquartile range, 24-43 years), 90% were men. The most frequent mechanisms of injury were stab wounds (43%) and gunshot wounds (32%).

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