Whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) metrics define risk in individuals >40 years of age, the earliest lesions of CVD appear well before this age. Despite the role of metabolism in CVD antecedents, studies in younger, biracial populations to define precise metabolic risk phenotypes are lacking.
We studied 2330 White and Black young adults (mean age, 32 years; 45% Black) in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) to identify metabolite profiles associated with an adverse CVD phenome (myocardial structure/function, fitness, vascular calcification), mechanisms, and outcomes over 2 decades. Statistical learning methods (elastic nets/principal components analysis) and Cox regression generated parsimonious, metabolite-based risk scores validated in >1800 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study.
In the CARDIA study, metabolite profiles quantified in early adulthood were associated with subclinical CVD development over 20 years, specifying known and novel pathways of CVD (eg, transcriptional regulation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nitric oxide, renin–angiotensin). We found 2 multiparametric, metabolite-based scores linked independently to vascular and myocardial health, with metabolites included in each score specifying microbial metabolism, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, nitric oxide modulation, and collagen metabolism.
Reference link- https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047689