The high cost and scarcity of HPV vaccinations have significantly hampered their introduction in low-income nations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of two doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination (bivalent 16/18 vaccine; 2vHPV) to a no-vaccination scenario and a three-dose scenario in one Chinese region. A lifetime cohort of 100,000 girls aged 12 years at the onset of vaccination was modelled using a static Markov model. In terms of vaccine effectiveness, a two-dose vaccination schedule was believed to be non-inferior to a three-dose schedule, and both vaccination schemes were considered to give lifetime protection.When comparing the different solutions, additional costs, health impacts, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were employed to quantify the outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (Chinese yuan per quality-adjusted life year) of the two-dose vaccination strategy is 12,472 when compared to no vaccination, while the 2-dose method is projected to be cost saving when compared to the 3-dose vaccination method.

With a per-dose vaccination price of CNY 500, introducing the 2vHPV vaccine would be very cost efficient, with implications for cervical cancer prevention in China and other resource-limited nations.