Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which kidneys fail to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood. The treatments available for CKD are poor, and patients with CKD are also at a higher risk of cardiovascular and other kidney complications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with CKD.
This randomized trial included a total of 4,304 patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 to 75 ml/min and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000. The patients were randomly assigned to receive dapagliflozin or placebo. The primary outcome of the study was a composite of a sustained decline in GFR of 50% or more, along with end-stage kidney disease and death from renal or cardiovascular outcomes.
During a median follow-up of 2.4 years, a primary outcome event occurred in 197 patients (9.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 312 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group. Further analysis suggested that the hazard ratio was 0.56 for a sustained decline in GFR by at least 50%, 0.71 for hospitalization or death due to cardiovascular causes.
The research concluded that treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in a lower composite of primary outcomes in patients with CKD.