This article provides an overview of novel nanoscale structures that may be applicable to the field of allergy, as well as a discussion of the required properties, benefits, and drawbacks of those nanostructures for clinical application, with a focus on the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Advances in the creation of various nanostructures promote their biological uses. The interaction of nanostructures with the immune system, particularly their capacity to mimic carrier molecules and their potential utility in the detection of allergic responses, is one area of study. 

Immunoassays are the most common in-vitro test for assessing immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated drug hypersensitivity responses. They do, however, have significant technological constraints that restrict their sensitivity. A broad range of nanostructures have been developed to measure particular IgE, with the goal of identifying various types of allergies. Because of the increase in hapten density and IgE accessibility, dendrimers have demonstrated enormous potential for the design and development of sensor systems for assessing IgE-mediated drug hypersensitivity responses. In this regard, a range of dendritic formations, as well as their hybridization to various solid substrates, have been demonstrated to be effective in the detection of drug allergy. Furthermore, knowing the entire antigenic determinants would allow for their inclusion and therefore further increase of sensitivity.