Immune system modulators were investigated to clarify the pathophysiologies underlying chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). S100 proteins have been tested for the immune-mediation reaction of Psoriasin (S100A7) and the Calgranulins (S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12) in connection with the CRS. This study underlines the pattern of expression in the CRS with (CRSwNP) and (CRSsNP) nasal polyps for S100 proteins and their proposed functions. In the sinonasal tissue of patients with CRSsNP, elevated levels of S100A7 and S100A12 were assessed relative to controls of CRSwNP. S100A12 CRSsNP expression has been associated with the seriousness of the disorder. In comparison to inferior turbinates and uncinatal tissues in patients suffering from CRSsNP and power, the levels of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 were increased.

Psoriasin and calgranulin have identified differential expression patterns and behaviours suggesting that S100 proteins play specific and concerted roles in the mediation of immunity in various CRS subtypes. These studies will allow more research to be carried out to understand the immune-modulating functions of S100 proteins in various CRS pathways and disease phenotypes, in order to find new biomarkers and objectives for better results.