Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a newly-discovered class of incretin-based drugs used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. While clinical trials have found DPP-4 inhibitors to be effective at controlling blood sugar levels, they are also associated with an increased risk of heart failure. This study aims to evaluate the risk of heart failure associated with the treatment of type-2 diabetes using DPP-4 inhibitors.

This systematic review and meta-analysis included 43 clinical trials that compared DPP-4 inhibitors against placebo in patients with type-2 diabetes. A total of 68,775 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of heart failure.

The findings suggested that there was a similar risk of heart failure in patients who had undergone treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors compared with those who had undergone placebo treatment. However, pooling of some trials indicated an increased risk of heart failure admission in patients treated with DPP-4 inhibitors (odds ratio 1.41). However, the evidence was of low quality and shouldn’t be used to make concrete conclusions.

The research concluded that the relationship between DPP-4 inhibitors and the risk of heart failure was not certain, and more research was required on the topic.

Ref: https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i610