Although increasing condom use to prevent HIV may decrease non-barrier contraception and increase unintended pregnancy, few studies focus on dual protection or dual methods. The researchers did this study to describe the correlates of double method use and consistent condom use in women of reproductive age.

Data was obtained from a decennial nationally representative household survey of women of reproductive age in Brazil. Multivariate logistic regression models identify the socio-demographic, sexual debut, fertility, and relationship factors associated with dual method use and consistent condom use.

Two-thirds of contracepting women in Brazil used dual protection. Consistent condom use in the past year occurred among 61% of exclusive condom users and 27% of double method users. Double methods were associated with some high school education, living in the Southern region, and the number of children, net of other factors. Consistent condom use was associated with condom use at sexual debut, wants no children or additional children, single/separated relationship status, and using exclusive condoms.

The study concluded that targeting and delivering integrated HIV and family planning services should focus on completed/large families. Single/separated individuals, and promoting dual protection at sexual debut.