This study was done with a purpose to determine the gut microbiota composition in Chinese AR patients as compared with healthy controls (HCs).

Stool samples from 93 AR patients and 72 age- and sex-matched HCs were collected. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed. Functional pathways were predicted using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States. Statistical analysis was performed using the R program, LefSe, analysis of QIIME, and statistical analysis of metagenomic profiles, among other tests.

AR patients had significantly lower gut-microbiota α-diversity. The gut microbiota composition significantly differed between the 2 study groups. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was higher while those of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were lower in the AR group than in the HC group. Escherichia-Shigella, Prevotella, and Parabacteroides had significantly higher relative abundances in the AR group than in the HC group. LefSe analysis indicated that Escherichia-Shigella, Lachnoclostridium, Parabacteroides, and Dialister were potential biomarkers for AR. Pyruvate, porphyrin, chlorophyll, purine metabolism, and peptidoglycan biosynthesis significantly differed between the AR and HC groups.

Through the obtained results this study suggested that dysbiosis of the fecal microbiota is involved in the development of AR. The present results may reveal key differences and identify targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention.