New data on inebilizumab in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) will be presented at the virtual 37th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) 2021, Oct. 13-15. Inebilizumab is the first and only FDA-approved anti-CD19 B-cell-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of adult patients with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive NMOSD.
P028: Extent of B-cell depletion is associated with disease activity reduction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: results from the N-MOmentum study (J. Bennett)
P029: The impact of low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A gene polymorphisms in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and implications for treatment outcomes: results from the N-MOmentum study (J. Bennett)
P037: Safety and efficacy of inebilizumab in NMOSD over a mean treatment duration of 3.2 years: end of study data from the N-MOmentum trial (B. Cree)
P044: Patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder display hallmarks of systemic autoimmunity: broad serum autoreactivity to nuclear antigens and elevated interferon-inducible gene expression (S. Pittock)
About Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)
NMOSD is a unifying term for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related syndromes. NMOSD is a rare, severe, relapsing, neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease that attacks the optic nerve, spinal cord, brain and brain stem.1,2 Approximately 80 percent of all patients with NMOSD test positive for anti-AQP4 antibodies.3 AQP4-IgG binds primarily to astrocytes in the central nervous system and triggers an escalating immune response that results in lesion formation and astrocyte death.4
Anti-AQP4 autoantibodies are produced by plasmablasts and plasma cells. These B-cell populations are central to NMOSD disease pathogenesis, and a large proportion of these cells express CD19.5 Depletion of these CD19+ B cells is thought to remove an important contributor to inflammation, lesion formation and astrocyte damage. Clinically, this damage presents as an NMOSD attack, which can involve the optic nerve, spinal cord and brain.4,6 Loss of vision, paralysis, loss of sensation, bladder and bowel dysfunction, nerve pain and respiratory failure can all be manifestations of the disease.7 Each NMOSD attack can lead to further cumulative damage and disability.8,9 NMOSD occurs more commonly in women and may be more common in individuals of African and Asian descent.10,11
Ajmera MR, Boscoe A, Mauskopf J, Candrilli SD, Levy M. Evaluation of comorbidities and health care resource use among patients with highly active neuromyelitis optica. J Neurol Sci. 2018;384:96-103.
What is NMO? Guthyjacksonfoundation.org. www.guthyjacksonfoundation.org/neuromyelitis-optica-nmo/ Accessed April 15, 2021.
Layman’s Guide to NMO. Sumairafoundation.org. https://www.sumairafoundation.org/laymans-guide-to-nmo/ Accessed April 25, 2021.
Liu Y, et al. A tract-based diffusion study of cerebral white matter in neuromyelitis optica reveals widespread pathological alterations. Mult Scler. 2011;18(7):1013-1021.
Chihara N, et al. Interleukin 6 signaling promotes anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody production from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica. PNAS. 2011;108(9):3701-3706.
Duan T, Smith AJ, Verkamn AS. Complement-independent bystander injury in AQP4-IgG seropositive neuromyelitis optica produced by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Acta Neuropathologica Comm. 2019;7(112).
Beekman J, et al. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: patient experience and quality of life. Neural Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019;6(4):e580.
Kimbrough DJ, et al. Treatment of neuromyelitis optica: review and recommendations. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2012;1(4):180-187.
Baranello RJ, Avasarala, JR. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with and without aquaporin 4 antibody: Characterization, differential diagnosis, and recent advances. J Neuro Ther. 2015;1(1):9-14.
Wingerchuk DM. Neuromyelitis optica: effect of gender. J Neurol Sci. 2009;286(1-2):18-23.
Flanagan EP, et al. Epidemiology of aquaporin-4 autoimmunity and neuromyelitis optica spectrum. Ann Neurol. 2016;79(5):775-783.professor of neurology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, and “NMOSD in the Therapeutic Era: Revisiting Treatment Rationale and Approaches,” presented by Friedemann Paul, M.D., professor of clinical neuroimmunology and head of the neuroimmunology outpatient clinic at the Experimental and Clinical Research Centre, Charite University Medicine Berlin.