The use of tobacco during pregnancy has several negative outcomes on the offspring’s reproductive health. Moreover, ALA supplement (alpha-lipoic acid) usage during pregnancy is increasing in recent times, and it is known to cause congenital malformation, diabetic embryopathy, miscarriage, and preterm delivery. The study aims to evaluate the parameters on sexual behavior, testicles, and reproductive parameters in the offspring.
Pregnant rats were exposed to tobacco smoke and ALA for 11 weeks. The control group contained 8 rats with no exposure. The parameters like sexual behavior, serum gonadotropin level, puberty parameters, testosterone, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, caspase 9 mRNA level, apoptotic protease-activating factor, immunohistochemistry assessment, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase were calculated on the offspring.
The TSE (tobacco smoke exposed) female rats had offspring with a decrease in intromissions. Decreased erectile function was common in rats with lower intromission number and ratio. Also, the ALA treatment showed impairment in sexual behaviors. The onset of puberty was also delayed in subjects exposed to both ALA and the smoke. There was an increase in testicular tissue, apoptotic index, oxidative stress marker, and mRNA level in all treatment groups.
The use of tobacco or ALA can cause a long-term adverse effect on healthy male offspring