Despite the fact that tetanus toxoid immunisation is widely available for most women in poor countries, maternal and neonatal tetanus remains a problem in 13 countries, nine of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study investigated whether offering monetary incentives promotes tetanus toxoid vaccine uptake among women of reproductive age in rural northern Nigeria. We randomly assigned financial incentives to women in three groups: 5 Nigerian naira (C5), 300 Nigerian naira (C300), and 800 Nigerian naira (C800).

Overall, 1,803 (72.6 percent) of the 2,482 women from 80 communities successfully received the vaccine (419 of 765 [54.8 percent ] women in C5, 643 of 850 [75.7 percent ] women in C300, and 741 of 867 [85.5 percent ] women in C800). Women in C300 and C800 were considerably more likely than women in C5 to receive the vaccination. Researchers also discovered that transportation expenses are one of the major hurdles preventing women from obtaining vaccinations at clinics, and that monetary incentives compensate for transportation costs unless they are too expensive.