This study states that Influenza is a potentially life-threatening illness associated with seasonal epidemics that result in significant societal disruption and morbidity.1, 2 Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract can prove fatal, particularly in patients with chronic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).3, 4 Susceptible individuals have a high risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is typically triggered by influenza A infection.

Antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) can bring clinical benefits, including clearing virus, alleviating symptoms, reducing transmission,5 and potentially improving survival.1, 6 NAI efficacy has been explored predominantly in patients with uncomplicated seasonal influenza.7-11 Among these agents, intravenous peramivir, including a single-dose 300 mg regimen, showed more rapid symptom alleviation compared with placebo11 and other NAIs.8-10 However, further data are needed for high-risk patients with chronic respiratory diseases that can be aggravated by influenza, leading to delayed recovery from influenza symptoms.

A phase III trial previously investigated intravenous peramivir 300 or 600 mg/d for 1-5 days as needed in high-risk patients.14 The median duration of influenza illness was 114.4 and 42.3 hours in the 300 and 600 mg groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.497; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.251-0.984).

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