This study addresses the consequences of air pollution on upper airway illness, a topic that has gotten little attention in the past. Several epidemiological studies have found that air pollution exacerbates airway illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pollutants are also harmful to various upper airway disorders such as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. In this context, traffic-related air pollutants have received a great deal of attention. Particulate pollution, photochemical pollutants, and ozone are all linked to such situations, according to growing research. Obese people and young children are more vulnerable. Work in vivo and in vitro has investigated the links between pollutants and disease, as well as potential pathophysiological processes. There are reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and inflammation all at work.

Major air contaminants that worsen upper airway disorders include traffic-derived particulates and cigarette smoke. Novel modes of action have been proposed, as well as risk factors. However, the findings are contradictory, necessitating controlled prospective research.